Labour Studies Index

Updated: 2021-01-05

Economic Integration of Pre-WWI Immigrants from the British Isles in the Canadian Labour Market

Document type Article
Author Dean, Jason
Author Dilmaghani, Maryam
Journal Journal of International Migration and Integration
Date 2014-9-19
ISSN 1488-3473, 1874-6365


This article provides new evidence on the economic assimilation of immigrants from the British Isles in Canada during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Using data from the 1901 and 1911 censuses and a pseudo-cohort methodology, we estimate both entry and assimilation effects. We find a non-negligible decline in entry earnings among successive cohorts of British and Irish immigrants, previously overlooked in the literature. Our estimates also reveal that the economic performance for Irish and older British arrival cohorts was better than previously reported. Overall, slow economic assimilation and sparse occupational mobility of immigrants have been a long-standing issue in the Canadian labour market.